Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder, which is based on bacterial inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bladder.
Cystitis develops more often in women, since the female urethra has anatomical features (the female urethra is short, wide and located near the anus), but can occur in both men and children.
Cystitis usually develops in combination with inflammation of the urethra (urethritis). Cystitis is mainly caused by bacteria that enter the bladder either from the external genital organs, the main causative agent of which is Escherichia coli, or from inflammation of the kidneys – urolithiasis, pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, etc.
Another cause of cystitis is inflammation of the urethra after intercourse, in which symptoms appear within 12 hours of intercourse.
The symptoms of cystitis are:
Cystitis usually causes frequent and painful urination.
The pain is characterized by burning and is localized in the lower abdomen, in the region of the symphysis. Urine may have an unpleasant odor, be cloudy, with traces of blood, in some cases there may be bleeding. The inflammatory process can spread from the bladder to the kidneys and cause inflammation of the kidneys (pyelonephritis), which will cause back pain and/or fever.
Infectious cystitis is caused by hypothermia, personal non-observance of hygiene rules, urinary incontinence, defloration, pregnancy, childbirth, inflammation of the genital organs.
Cystitis in men can be caused by inflammation of the prostate gland, narrowing of the urethra, adenoma, urolithiasis, prostate cancer and other diseases of the genital organs.
According to the course of the disease, acute and chronic cystitis are distinguished. Acute cystitis is caused by hypothermia and direct exposure to an aggressive “agent”. Frequent urination begins, pain during urination increases and becomes constant.
Due to the high ability to regenerate the mucous membrane of the bladder, most inflammatory processes disappear without any consequences. For this reason, in acute primary cystitis, the prognosis is favorable, but if treatment is not started on time, cystitis will become chronic. Chronic cystitis occurs with frequent attacks (relapses). Chronic cystitis manifests itself in the same way as acute cystitis, but the symptoms of the disease are milder.
With inflammation of the bladder, microorganisms can enter the kidneys through the ureter and cause an inflammatory process there.
In acute cystitis, the patient is prescribed bed rest. To reduce the concentration of urine and remove bacteria, pus and other pathogens from the bladder, you need to drink plenty of fluids (2-3 liters per day). You must follow a strict diet. It is recommended to exclude spicy dishes, salts, sauces, spices, jams, alcoholic beverages from the daily diet. Preference should be given to vegetables, fruits, dairy products. Thermal measures are prescribed only after confirming the cause of cystitis, since heat can cause bleeding. The main principle of treatment of cystitis is rational antimicrobial therapy. For this reason, when symptoms of acute cystitis appear, it is necessary to immediately conduct a microbiological diagnosis in order to identify an infectious “causative agent”, if it is confirmed, then its sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs is determined.
In some cases, after proper treatment, urinary tract inflammation may recur in some patients. Why is this happening? Microbes constantly enter the bladder, but this does not always lead to the development of an infection, since the latter are “washed out” of the bladder. In some women, the natural defense mechanisms of the bladder are weakened. According to one theory, in people suffering from urinary tract infections, the cause of relapses (relapses) of cystitis may be infrequent emptying of the bladder, since the structure of the walls of the inner surface of the bladder is such that bacteria “stick” to the latter and are not excreted in the urine. Prolonged retention of urine in the bladder leads to its excessive filling and weakening of the muscular system of the bladder. As a result, the bladder gradually “weakens” and does not contract with sufficient force to expel the collected urine. If the bladder does not empty completely, bacteria present in it increases the risk of developing cystitis.
Elderly women are especially prone to recurrence of cystitis, since with age the bladder loses its elasticity and does not empty completely. Low estrogen levels after menopause can also negatively affect bladder and urethral function.
As a rule, with cystitis, there is no increase in body temperature, since the mucous membrane of the bladder has a protective layer that limits the inflammatory process in the bladder. In the case of cystitis, one should not self-medicate, as there is a risk of incomplete elimination of the infectious agent, which may be the cause of a relapse of the disease.