Testicular cancer is a malignant neoplasm that develops in the testicles. The testicles are male sex glands that produce spermatozoa and also the male sex hormone testosterone, which is responsible for the secondary signs of the male sex (hair growth in some areas of the face and body). , voice change, etc.).

Cancer usually develops in only one testicle, but it can appear in both. Testicular cancer can spread to the lymph nodes in the stomach or other organ systems, especially the lungs.

Types of testicular cancer
There are different types of testicular cancer, whose names correspond to the type of cancer cells. The most common type is seminoma. Other types of testicular cancer are grouped into nonseminomas.
These include: choriocarcinoma, embryonic (fetal) carcinoma, teratoma, tumors from the yolk sac, etc.
Another precancerous condition, called germ cell intratubular neuroplasia, has a 1:2 chance of developing into testicular cancer within 5 years. This condition can only be detected with a biopsy.

Symptoms of testicular cancer
A very common sign of testicular cancer is a palpable lump or swelling that comes out of the testicles.

Other symptoms include:

feeling of heaviness inside the scrotum
changes in the shape or size of the testicle sensation of disproportion in the testicles Tingling or pain in the testicles, scrotum, abdomen, or lower back due to cancer spreading to the lymph nodes in these areas

If you find a mass or swelling on one or both testicles, see your doctor to have your testicles examined. If the doctor also feels swelling, he or she may refer you for an ultrasound and/or some blood tests. Sometimes additional tests are needed, and you may also have a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of your scrotum or a biopsy (where a small sample of tissue is taken from the affected testicle).

Testicular cancer treatment depends on what type of cancer you have and how far it has spread. If your doctor suspects that you have testicular cancer, he or she will most likely recommend surgical removal of the affected testicle, called an orchidectomy.

After that, laboratory diagnostics of the removed testicular tissue will check the type of cancer and the stage of its development. After surgery, you may not need any other treatment, but in some cases youmay be offered chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill cancer cells that may have spread to other parts of the body.

In other cases, a second operation may be required. In general, treatment outcomes are more successful when the disease remains localized and does not spread to other organs.