Inflammation of the prostate gland Prostatitis — the prostate gland is a male urogenital glandular organ.
It looks like a chestnut, length 3-4 cm, width 3-5 cm. It is located in the small pelvis, below the bladder; seminal ducts open in it and urine passes through it. It has the function of holding urine, as there are two urinary sphincters responsible for this function in its borders — above and below.
The prostate gland secretes a secret that provides an environment for the viability of sperm. Thanks to the main medium of this secret, sperm overcome the acidic barrier of the vagina and are transported into the uterine cavity. Prostate secretion also has bactericidal properties. And like a muscle, its contraction causes ejaculation. It is also important to note that sexual dysfunction can be directly related to diseases of the prostate gland, as the vessels and nerves of the penis pass through the surface of the gland.
According to the American Institute of Health, there are 4 categories of prostatitis.
- Category I — Acute prostatitis
- Category II – Chronic bacterial prostatitis
- Category III – Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome
- Category IIIa — Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome with signs of inflammation
- Category IIIb — Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome without signs of inflammation
- Category IV – Asymptomatic (without clinical signs) chronic prostatitis.
Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is often combined with urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), vesiculitis (inflammation of the seminal vesicles), cystitis (inflammation of the urinary bladder), and in the elderly – with adenoma of the prostate or benign hyperplasia of the prostate gland.
We highlight two main causes of prostatitis.
- Non-infectious (congestive) – (reduced immunity, hypothermia, reduced physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, prolonged sexual abstinence, alcohol abuse.
- Infectious – (sexually transmitted infections) when a pathogenic microorganism enters the tissue of the prostate gland – microbes, viruses, bacteria, fungi, etc. Pelvic trauma, blood and lymph circulation disorders of the pelvic organs, hormonal changes (relative or absolute androgen deficiency) can contribute to the occurrence of prostatitis. The symptoms of prostatitis are:
- Decreased urine flow, difficult or painful urination, intermittent urination, frequent urination.
- Presence of pain in the area of the bladder, radiating to the testicles, scrotum or rectum.
- Sexual dysfunction
- Violation of ejaculation, changes in semen (volume, viscosity)
With acute inflammation of the prostate gland, there is a sharp increase in body temperature (up to 40 degrees), chills, tremors. Acute prostatitis is accompanied by sharp pains in the bladder, scrotum, groin and testicles, discharge from the urethra, frequent urination.
With acute prostatitis, complications such as urinary retention, prostate abscess formation, and sepsis may occur. With acute prostatitis, treatment is necessary in an emergency and in hospital conditions.
Chronic prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland)
Chronic prostatitis occurs in 20-45% of men. With chronic inflammation of the prostate gland, clinical signs are weak and a distorted symptomatic picture is observed. If the clinical signs persist for more than 3 months, in these cases, the prostatitis goes into the chronic stage. Chronic prostatitis can be bacterial or abacterial. Chronic prostatitis may occur without any clinical symptoms, which may appear as a result of reduced immunity, colds or alcohol abuse.
During the treatment, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed and drugs that improve the patency of the urinary tract are prescribed. In the absence of treatment, chronic prostatitis is a risk factor for the development of prostate adenoma. Treatment is carried out in outpatient settings. Unfortunately, there are often cases when patients resort to self-medication and, as a rule, in such cases, the treatment turns out to be ineffective. Diet (exclusion of spicy food and alcoholic beverages), medication and physiotherapeutic treatment are prescribed.
In order to prevent prostatitis, it is necessary to timely and fully treat inflammatory diseases of the urethra and urinary bladder and regularly monitor bowel activity. Sedentary workers are recommended to walk and do sports. running, swimming, tennis.